Linking Phrases For Academic Essays

It’s very common for students to use long words they don’t understand very well in their essays and theses because they have a certain idea of what academic writing should be. Many students believe that academic writing is wordy and convoluted, and uses a lot of jargon. This leads many students to fall into a trap of imagining that the longer the word, the more impressive and intelligent their writing will seem.

We often see long sentences and multisyllabic words where shorter sentences and simpler words would do. Some students even use Microsoft Word’s thesaurus function to replace a common word with a more complicated word. This is a risky move, because unless you’re very careful, the new word may not carry quite the same meaning as the original, even if it’s similar.

The result can range from funny to confusing, which defeats the purpose of academic writing: to be as clear and concise as possible, using just the right words to convey your argument. Using uncommon words, instead of making your paper seem smarter, generally detracts from your ideas.

To avoid this, using linking or transition words that signpost your arguments can help to clarify your views and show the reader what to expect from certain paragraphs or sentences. These words give structure to the whole, helping you to organise your ideas and assist the reader in understanding them.

We have prepared some flashcards containing linking words you can use in academic writing.

CLICK HERE to download these FREE flashcards

Below is a handy list of words that are both useful and appropriate to academic language.

Describing similarities

Likewise

Correspondingly

Equally

Not only… but also

In the same way

Similarly

Showing cause and effect

Consequently

As a result

Thus

Hence (never ‘hence why’)

Since (try to avoid ‘as’ when showing cause and effect)

Because

Therefore

Accordingly

This suggests that

It follows that

For this reason

Comparing and contrasting

Alternatively

However

Conversely

On the other hand

Instead

Yet

On the contrary

Showing limitation or contradiction

Despite/in spite of

While (not whilst!)

Even so

On the contrary

Nevertheless

Nonetheless

Although

Admittedly

Emphasis, addition or examples

To illustrate

To clarify

Further (not ‘furthermore’)

First, second and third (not firstly, secondly and thirdly)

For instance

Moreover

Typically

Especially

In fact

Namely

In addition

Concluding

To summarise

It can be concluded that

As can be seen

Ultimately

Given the above

As described

Finally

 

We have prepared some flashcards containing linking words you can use in academic writing.

CLICK HERE to download these FREE flashcards

 

Pro tip

The best way to get better at writing academic language is to read academic writing. You’ll pick up all sorts of useful tips from published papers in your area of study.

Linking words (also known as transitions) are one of the most important elements in writing, since they allow readers to see the relationships between your ideas. There are several categories of transitions, ranging from words and phrases that signal contrast to words and phrases that signal agreement.

Because they are so important, it’s critical that you don’t misuse them. This article presents some commonly misused linking words that you should be aware of, and then presents some of the most common types of linking words, along with examples.

The most important thing I can emphasize here is to always be aware of the definition of any word or phrase you use. You may be familiar enough with a word to feel comfortable using it, but if you don’t actually know its definition and you don’t take the time to look it up, you may occasionally (or frequently) misuse it.

Linking words present a particularly important case in which you should be aware of definitions, since your audience will be easily lost if you misrepresent the connections between your sentences and ideas.

Linking words often (Ab)used

Therefore

Easily one of the most commonly misused linking words, therefore indicates a logical relationship between two things, such that the first thing proves or necessitates the second. Think of it as equivalent to the phrase “as a result.” Confused uses of therefore often imply odd logical connections.

Example of misused transition: Therefore

Law firms are known for their highly competitive environments. Therefore it is important for lawyers to set themselves apart from their colleagues.

Problem: To see the problem more clearly, simplify the sentence: “We know it’s a competitive environment, so it’s important for lawyers to set themselves apart.” The implication here is that lawyers need to set themselves apart because people know that law firms are highly competitive.

However, the fact that people know of the highly competitive environment is more or less irrelevant to the reasons lawyers set themselves apart from each other.

Therefore used correctly

Law firms are highly competitive environments. Therefore it is important for lawyers to set themselves apart from their colleagues.

Explanation:  Here, the logical connection is between law firms being highly competitive environments and lawyers needing to set themselves apart from each other.

Herewith, therewith, hereby

These are all examples of transition words not in common use. They are most common in the technical definitions of legal documents, and often sound archaic when used in other contexts. Though they have their uses, it’s best to avoid these words.

Example of misused transition: Hereby

One of the best ways to understand poverty is as a disease.  Hereby, we not only see that it is hereditary, but acknowledge that it has devastating effects on a person’s health.

Improved Example

One of the best ways to understand poverty is as a disease.  Understanding it this way, we not only see that it is hereditary, but also acknowledge that it has devastating effects on a person’s health.

Explanation:  “Hereby” was above being used as an equivalent to “herewith,” meaning roughly “along with this,” “in this way,” or “by means of this.”  The language is simply much more natural in the rephrasing.

And/or

This slash-transition (and with most other words joined by a slash) can be very difficult to understand. Some writers mean “eitherAor B or both A and B,” yet others simply mean A and B, and still others simply mean A or B. It gets confusing.

Avoid and/or altogether in formal writing. Almost always the context of the discussion will clarify your meaning if you use simply and or or. In cases that might be confusing, it’s generally best to spend the extra words to clarify your meaning.

Example of misused transition: And/or

On her way to work, she will take the bus and/or the train.

Explanation:  It’s difficult to tell whether she might take 1) either the bus or the train, 2) both the bus and the train, or 3) either the bus or the train or both. Making the ambiguity worse, the intended meaning will change depending on the writer. This confusion of use among beginning writers makes it difficult for a reader to decide among the choices.

Solution:  Simply avoid “and/or” and spell out the option that you mean:

  1. the bus or the train
  2. the bus and the train
  3. the bus and the train, or both of them.

As well as

The phrase “as well as” is often used as a substitution for “and,” but the meaning is not quite the same. “As well as” implies a difference of emphasis or importance, with whatever comes after “as well as” being less important, so receiving less emphasis. “And,” on the other hand, is used between two equally important things.

Example of misused transition: as well as

The mayor will decide on next week’s meeting time, as well as whether or not staff will be paid for that meeting.

Problem:  The emphasis seems not to be right here, at least if we think that whether staff will be paid is at least as important as the time of the meeting.  To see the problem more clearly, we can keep the emphasis as it is and rephrase the sentence: “The mayor will decide on not only whether or not staff will be paid for their time, but also on next week’s meeting time.”

Here it should be obvious that the “not only … but also” sentence structure downplays the importance of a seemingly important issue (whether or not staff gets paid).  The emphasis is the same in the original sentence.

Solution

The mayor will decide on next week’s meeting time and whether or not staff will be paid for that meeting.

Explanation:  “And” gives equal emphasis to both the time of the meeting and the issue of staff pay.  If we think these are issues that should receive equal emphasis, we need to use “and.”

Different examples of linking words*

Note that many of these may appear at the beginning, middle, and end of sentences. If in doubt about the use of any of the linking words below, a quick search for example sentences should help clarify.

Additive linking words

These show addition, introduction, similarity to other ideas, etc.

Additionindeed, further, as well, not only x but also y, also, moreover, as a matter of fact, and, furthermore, additionally, besides x, or, in fact, too, let alone, nor, alternatively, on the other hand, not to mention x
Introductionsuch as, as, particularly, including, as an illustration, for example, like, in particular, to illustrate, for instance, especially, notably, by way of example
Referencespeaking of x, considering x, regarding x, in regard to x, as for x, concerning x, the fact that, on the subject of x
Similaritysimilarly, in the same way, by the same token, in a like manner, equally, likewise, as
Identificationthat is (to say), namely, specifically, thus, more precisely
Clarificationthat is (to say), I mean, (to) put (it) another way, in other words

Adversative linking words

These linking words are used to signal conflict, contradiction concession, dismissal, etc.

Conflictbut, by way of contrast, while, on the other hand, however, (and) yet, whereas, though, in contrast, when in fact, conversely, still, whereas
Emphasiseven more, above all, indeed, more importantly, besides
Concessioneven so, nevertheless, even though, on the other hand, admittedly, however, nonetheless, despite x,    notwithstanding x, (and) still, although, in spite of x, regardless (of x), (and) yet, though, granted x, be that as it may
Dismissaleither way, whichever happens, whatever the case, in either event, in any case, at any rate, in either case, whatever happens, all the same, in any event
Replacement(or) at least, (or) rather, instead

Causal linking words

These linking words signal cause and effect, reason and result, etc.

Cause or Reasonfor the (simple) reason that, being that, for, in view of x, inasmuch as, because (of x), seeing that, as, owing to (x), due to (the fact that), in that, since
Conditionon (the) condition (that), in the case that, granted (that), if, provided that, in case, in the event that, as/so long as, unless, given that, granting (that), providing that, even if, only if
Effect/Resultas a result (of x), consequently, hence, for this reason, thus, because (of x), in consequence, so that, accordingly, as a consequence, so much (so) that, so, therefore
Purposefor the purpose of, in the hope that, for fear that, so that, with this intention, to the end that, in order to, lest, with this in mind, in order that, so as to, so
Consequenceunder such circumstances, then, in that case, if not, that being the case, if so, otherwise

Sequential linking words

These linking words are used to signal a chronological or logical sequence.

Numericalin the (first, second, etc.) place, initially, to start with, first of all, firstly (etc.), to begin with, at first, for a start
Continuationsubsequently, previously, eventually, next, before x, afterwards, after x, then
Conclusionto conclude (with), as a final point, eventually, at last, last but not least, finally, lastly
Digressionto change the topic, incidentally
Resumptionto get back to the point, to resume, anyhow, anyway, at any rate, to return to the subject
Summationas previously stated, so, consequently, in summary, all in all, to make a long story short, thus, as I have said, to sum up, overall, as has been mentioned, then, to summarize, to be brief, briefly, given these points, in all, on the whole, therefore, as has been noted, hence, in conclusion, in a word, to put it briefly, in sum, altogether, in short

* List of transitions taken with slight modifications from https://www.msu.edu/~jdowell/135/transw.html with credits to Prof. Campbell, Prof. Buckhoff, and Prof Dowell at Michigan State University (License: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)

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