Example Of Term Paper In Logic Which Of The Following

Although the accepted form of academic writing in the social sciences can vary considerable depending on the methodological framework and the intended audience. However, most college-level research papers require careful attention to the following stylistic elements:

I.  The Big Picture
Unlike fiction or journalistic writing, the overall structure of academic writing is formal and logical. It must be cohesive and possess a logically organized flow of ideas; this means that the various parts are connected to form a unified whole. There should be narrative links between sentences and paragraphs so the reader is able to follow your argument and all sources are properly cited. The introduction should include a description of how the rest of the paper is organized.

II.  The Tone
The overall tone refers to the attitude conveyed in a piece of writing. Throughout your paper, it is important that you present the arguments of others fairly and with an appropriate narrative tone. When presenting a position or argument that you disagree with, describe this argument accurately and without loaded or biased language. In academic writing, the author is expected to investigate the research problem from an authoritative point of view. You should, therefore, state the strengths of your arguments confidently, using language that is neutral, not confrontational or dismissive.

III.  Diction
Diction refers to the choice of words you use. Awareness of the words you use is important because words that have almost the same denotation [dictionary definition] can have very different connotations [implied meanings]. This is particularly true in academic writing because words and terminology can evolve a nuanced meaning that describes a particular idea, concept, or phenomenon derived from the epistemological culture of that discipline. Therefore, use concrete words [not general] that convey a specific meaning. If this cannot be done without confusing the reader, then you need to explain what you mean within the context of how that word is used within a discipline.

IV.  The Language
The investigation of research problems in the social sciences is often complex and multi-dimensional. Therefore, it is important that you use unambiguous language. Well-structured paragraphs and clear topic sentences enable a reader to follow your line of thinking without difficulty. Your language should be concise, formal, and express precisely what you want it to mean. Avoid vague expressions that are not specific or precise enough for the reader to derive exact meaning ["they," "we," "people," "the organization," etc.], abbreviations like 'i.e.'  ["in other words"] or 'e.g.' ["for example"], and the use of unspecific determinate words ["super "very" "incredible"].

V.  Punctuation
Scholars rely on precise words and language to establish the narrative tone of their work and, therefore, punctuation marks are used very deliberately. For example, exclamation points are rarely used to express a heightened tone because it can come across as unsophisticated or over-excited. Avoid using dashes and hyphens because they give the impression of writing that is too informal. Dashes should be limited to the insertion of an explanatory comment in a sentence while hyphens should be limited to connecting prefixes to words [e.g., multi-disciplinary] or when forming compound phrases [e.g., commander-in-chief]. Finally, understand that semi-colons represent a pause that is longer than a comma, but shorter than a period in a sentence. In general, there are four grammatical uses of semi-colons: when a second clause expands or explains the first clause; to describe a sequence of actions or different aspects of the same topic; placed before clauses which begin with "nevertheless", "therefore", "even so," and "for instance”; and, to mark off a series of phrases or clauses which contain commas. If you are not confident about when to use semi-colons [and most of the time, they are not required for proper punctuation], rewrite using shorter sentences or revise the paragraph.

VI.  Academic Conventions
Citing sources in the body of your paper and providing a list of references as either footnotes or endnotes is a very important aspect of academic writing. It is essential to always acknowledge the source of any ideas, research findings, data, or quoted text that you have used in your paper as a defense against allegations of plagiarism. The scholarly convention of citing sources is also important because it allows the reader to identify the sources you used and to independently verify your findings and conclusions. Examples of other academic conventions to follow include the appropriate use of headings and subheadings, properly identifying acronyms, avoiding slang or colloquial language, avoiding emotive language, avoiding contractions, and using first person and second person pronouns only when necessary.

VII.  Evidence-Based Arguments
Assignments often ask you to express your own point of view about the research problem. However, what is valued in academic writing is that opinions are based on a sound understanding of the pertinent body of knowledge and academic debates that exist within, and often external to, your discipline. You need to support your opinion with evidence from scholarly sources. It should be an objective stance presented as a logical argument. The quality of your evidence will determine the strength of your argument. The challenge is to convince the reader of the validity of your opinion through a well-documented, coherent, and logically structured piece of writing. This is particularly important when proposing solutions to problems or recommended courses of action.

VIII.  Thesis-Driven
Academic writing is “thesis-driven,” meaning that the starting point is a particular perspective, idea, or position applied to the chosen research problem, such as, establishing, proving, or disproving solutions to the questions posed for the topic; Note that a problem statement without the research questions does not qualify as academic writing because simply identifying the research problem does not establish for the reader how you will contribute to solving the problem, what aspects you believe are most critical, or suggest a method for gathering data to better understand the problem.

IX.  Complexity and Higher-Order Thinking
Academic writing addresses complex issues that require high-order thinking skills to comprehend [e.g., critical, reflective, logical, and creative thinking]. Think of your writing this way: One of the most important attributes of a good teacher is the ability to explain complex ideas in a way that is understandable and relatable to the topic being presented. This is also one of the main functions of academic writing--describing and explaining the significance of complex ideas as clearly as possible. Often referred to as higher-order thinking skills, these include cognitive processes that are used to comprehend, solve problems, and express concepts or that describe abstract ideas that cannot be easily acted out, pointed to, or shown with images. As a writer, you must take on the role of a good teacher by summarizing a lot of complex information into a well-organized synthesis of ideas, concepts, and recommendations that contribute to a better understanding of the research problem.

Academic Writing. Writing Center. Colorado Technical College; Hartley, James. Academic Writing and Publishing: A Practical Guide. New York: Routledge, 2008; Murray, Rowena  and Sarah Moore. The Handbook of Academic Writing: A Fresh Approach. New York: Open University Press, 2006; Johnson, Roy. Improve Your Writing Skills. Manchester, UK: Clifton Press, 1995; Nygaard, Lynn P. Writing for Scholars: A Practical Guide to Making Sense and Being Heard. Second edition. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, 2015; Silvia, Paul J. How to Write a Lot: A Practical Guide to Productive Academic Writing. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2007; Style, Diction, Tone, and Voice. Writing Center, Wheaton College; Sword, Helen. Stylish Academic Writing. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2012.

STEP 8: Cite your sources

Your paper should include reference notes that identify a specific source for everything that you included in your paper except arguments and conclusions that you created yourself. The reader should be able to use your reference notes to answer "Where did you find that?" for every single fact in your paper, and every opinion that is not your own. If your paper contains an opinion, and you provided no reference note for it, the reader will assume that it is an opinion that you developed during your research. If that is not true, and you obtained it from someone else's work, the failure to cite the source is an act of plagiarism. Note that if you have several statements of fact in the same paragraph, and they all come from the same source, it is acceptable to use a single reference note for the whole paragraph.

Example: If, in the research paper on canoes in the Middle Niger Valley, you included a statement like "Somono sailors operated freight canoes as large as thirty tons for Maraka owners who sold transport services to local merchants," you may use a single reference note:

Richard L. Roberts, Warriors, Merchants and Slaves: The State and the Economy in the Middle Niger Valley, 1700-1914 (Stanford University Press, 1987), 74.

There are rules for how to refer to a large variety of sources -- books, articles, interviews, unpublished masters theses and more. For complete information on how to do this, see The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 487-635 or Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 5th edition (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1982), 111-174, available on reserve at the university library's reference desk. (If you find a newer edition, feel free to use it.) You may use the following examples as a general set of guidelines for the most common type of sources:


Author's first and last name, Title of the book (City of publication, State and/or Country: Publisher's full name, Date of publication), pages.

Sanche de Gramont, The Strong Brown God: the Story of the Niger River (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976), 127.

Chapter in a book

Author's first and last name, "title of chapter" in editor's name(s), Title of the book (City of publication, State and/or Country: Publisher's full name, Date of publication), pages.

Maxim Matusevich, "Reparation and Repair: Reform Movements in the Atlantic World," in Toyin Falola and Kevin D. Roberts, editors, The Atlantic World, 1450-2000 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008), 348.

Magazine or journal article

Author's first and last name, "Title of article" in name of magazine or journal , Volume and/or issue number (Date of publication), page range in the issue.

Capitaine L'Enfant, "Le Niger, voie ouverte à notre empire africain" in Le Tour du Monde, tome IX, nouvelle série, n°1 (3 January 1903), 1- 96.

Archival document

Author of document, "title of document" (place, date), name of archive where the document is located, name of file where the document is located

Commandant Supérieur de la Marine, "État de Situation des Équipages de la Station locale du Sénégal au 1 Jan 1865" (St. Louis, 1 January 1865), in Archives Nationales de France, Section Marine CC3 1183.


Name of person interviewed, "interview by" name of person who conducted the interview (location, date), location of transcript or original tape recording.

Moussa Guindo, interview by James A. Jones (Ségou, April 29, 1992), tape in James A. Jones collection

Web Page or Other On-Line Source

According to The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th editon (1993), sec. 15.424, in general, a reference should contain the author, title, name of source [type of source: i.e. database on-line, electronic bulletin board], vol. no., date document was created [date document was accessed], URL or other unique source. For more up-to-date information, see International Standards Organization standards for referencing electronic documents.

Jim Jones, "West Chester's Everhart Park: A Century of Recreation," web page, August 2004 [accessed January 19, 2005], http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his480/reports/everpar1.htm.

If your final project is a web page instead of a paper, a reference note to a web page should include the same material that appears in a written report, plus an active link to the source web page.

Jim Jones, "West Chester's Everhart Park: A Century of Recreation," web page, August 2004 [accessed January 19, 2005], http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his480/reports/everpar1.htm.

STEP 9: Prepare a bibliography

The bibliography contains a list of all the sources you used in your paper. It presents them in a way that permits a prospective reader to see how you did your research.

List your sources by type: the usual categories for historical papers are Newspapers and Periodicals, Interviews, Archives, Unpublished Theses, and Secondary Sources. Within each category other than Archives, list them in alphabetical order by author's last name, or the author is not known, the first word in the source's title. For archival documents, organize them by the name of the archive and the archive's file number in numerical order. For instance, the index page to secondary sources on this Web Site is presented in the form of a bibliography. For an example of archival documents, look at this index page for documents from the Senegalese National Archives.

To format entries in a bibliography, begin with the entries in reference notes. You will need to write the last name of the author (or first author in multiple author works) before the author's first name, to make your alphabetization clear. For additional information on how to format bibliographic entries, see The Chicago Manual of Style or Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.

STEP 10: Print out a final draft

By the time it is finished, your research paper will contain a complete, logical argument about a historical topic. The question that you have answered should be clearly identified in the opening paragraphs. The middle paragraphs should contain a clear and logical presentation of your argument. The concluding paragraph(s) should clearly explain the result of your argument. Your research paper should also contain complete reference notes for all sources used to construct the argument. Following the conclusion of your argument, you research paper should include a bibliography at the end of the paper which lists all of the sources used to create your argument.

To submit your research paper, it should be typed or laser-printed with one-inch margins on all size, and composed in a standard 11 or 12-point font such as Courier, Arial, Helvetica or Times Roman. All of your pages should be numbered. Fancy covers are unnecessary -- a staple in the upper left-hand corner will suffice. Do not include any blank pages, and do not use a separate title page. Instead, type (single-space) your name, the course number, the date and the title of your paper at the top of your first page, skip a line, and then start your paper (double-space).

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