Annotated Bibliography Harvard

This is an example of an annotation with its appropriately referenced source, using APA referencing. This example is from Jingjing Jiang's annotated bibliography written for a Massey University assignment in 2006.

Thaman, K.H. (1994). Ecotourism-friendly or the new sell? One woman's view of ecotourism in Pacific Island countries. In A. Emberson-Bain (Ed.), Sustainable development or malignant growth? Perspectives of Pacific Island women (pp. 183-193). Suva, Fiji: Marama Publications.

Thaman argues that there is an inherent contradiction between cultural conservation and ecotourism business: the latter always leads to the erosion of the former. Thaman addresses the importance of indigenous culture, and recognises the gradually increasing phenomenon of cultural alienation. She rejects applying the Western model of ecotourism in the Pacific, and incisively maintains that ecotourism has become a new sell in Pacific Islands, promoted by profits. Consequently, she advocates "ecocultural tourism development" as an alternative form of development. Further, Thaman touches on the issue of gender, and emphasises the role of education in improving people's consciousness.

Like Simmons (1993), Thaman critically examines the crucial problems of ecotourism in developing countries, rather than accepting it as unproblematic. Similar to Scheyvens (1999), Thaman emphasises the importance of local people's full participation, and social and political empowerment, but in different ways. Also like Scheyvens, Thaman believes that it is possible to promote both development and conservation. Thaman's proposal of "ecocultural tourism development" is fairly perceptive, constructive, and more radical than Scheyven's community-based approach. Although Thaman provides incisive views on ecotourism, it is difficult to change people's perceptions radically, and it is unrealistic for foreign donors to relinquish certain rights and provide aid unconditionally. Moreover, Thaman fails to find any solutions derived from the local community's own perspective - what these people can do for their own sake, instead of depending on others.

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Last updated on 4 March, 2013


Both Reference Lists and Bibliographies are placed at the end of your essay, assignment or thesis (unless your lecturer has specified differently, which may be the case for theses). Citations (references) are then arranged alphabetically by author or responsible organisation, or where no author is given, by title. (If the first word is a definite/indefinite article it should be ignored, e.g. The Story of Art should be filed alphabetically under Story). Citations by the same author are then arranged chronologically, with the most recent first.

It is important you consult with your lecturer or Course Notes to determine whether a Reference List or Bibliography is required. 


Reference List (Example)

About Jenny Holzer 2011, dvd, Microcinema International, San Francisco, California.

Art + soul : a journey into the world of aboriginal art2010, television program, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney, 4 October.

Art Farmer 1978, Art, sound recording, Cadet Records, Chicago, Ill.

Chains = Cantene/Titanus 2011, motion picture, British Film Institute, London.

Colli, MG 2009, Bilbao_6 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, photograph, viewed 4 January 2012, <>.

Di Trocchio, P 2011, Manstyle : men + fashion, exhibition catalogue, 11 March-27 November, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Vic.

Eales, S (ed.) 2003, The Jacaranda atlas, 3rd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.

Fujimoto, Tetsuo 1998, Work 98-1, Fibre art : Hemp cloth, polyester threads, Pellon backing and natural plant dyes Exhibited at: Textural Space exhibition, Surrey Institute of Art & Design, 27 Apr - 23 Jun 2001.

Google Earth 6.0. 2008. Hylands House and estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D Buildings data layer, viewed 31 August 2011, < >.

Gorman, P 2001, The look: adventures in pop & rock fashion, Sanctuary Publishing Ltd, London.

Gough, P 2017, What makes art good or bad?, video recording, Youtube, viewed 17 July 2017, 

Le Corbusier, c. 1950-1954, Notre-Dame du Haut, exterior, Ronchamp, France, viewed 12 January 2012, Oxford Art Online database. 

Liebovitz, A 2002, Dancers: photographs by Annie Liebovitz, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Melbourne Water 2012, Weekly water report 5 January 2012: Chart view Daily residential water use in Melbourne, Melbourne Water, Victoria, viewed 12 January 2012, <>.

Mojang 2009, Minecraft, video game, Xbox 360, Mojang, Sweden.

Nefertari with Isis, n.d. photograph, viewed 4 January 2012, <>.

Sallowsky, M 2006, RMIT buildings - Brunswick campus, digital image, RMIT University, Melbourne, viewed 12 January 2012, <;ID=218ujxd8tspl1>.

Turner, JMW 1812, Snow storm: Hannibal and army crossing the alps, Oil on canvas, 145×2360 mm, Turner Collection, Tate Gallery, Britain.

Ubisoft Entertainment 2012, Assassins creed III, computer program, Ubisoft Australia.


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