Eyjafjallajokull Eruption Case Study Responses To Death

The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland on 20th March 2010 affected the economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world.

There was an extensive air travel disruption caused by the closure of airspace over many countries affecting the travel arrangements of hundreds of thousands of people in Europe and elsewhere. Sporting, entertainment and many other events were cancelled, delayed or disrupted when individuals or teams were unable to travel to their destination.

The state funeral of Lech Kaczyński and Maria Kaczyńska on 18 April 2010 was affected as some national leaders were unable to attend, including Barack Obama, Stephen Harper, Angela Merkel, and Nicolas Sarkozy.

Economic Impacts[edit]

Airline industry[edit]

See also: Air travel disruption after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

Air travel and transport throughout the world was cancelled due to the airspace restrictions and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) estimated the airline industry worldwide would lose £130 million ($200 million) a day as a result.[1] IATA stated that the total loss for the airline industry was around US$1.7 billion (£1.1 billion, €1.3 billion).[2] The Airport Operators Association (AOA) estimated that airports lost £80 million over the six-and-a-half days.[3] Over 95,000 flights had been cancelled all across Europe during the six-day travel ban,[4] with later figures suggesting 107,000 flights cancelled during an 8-day period, accounting for 48% of total air traffic and roughly 10 million passengers.[5]

Following Air France-KLM's and British Airways' requests to the European Union, and additionally in the latter's case to the British government, for compensation, Gordon Brown announced that the EU Solidarity fund, designed to aid EU member states in the event of large-scale disasters, could be a possible source of compensation.[6] The EU's competition commissioner, Joaquin Almunia, also said the EU was considering easing its rules on governmental subsidies to airlines.[6] Late in April 2010, EU Transport Commissioner Siim Kallas said that governments would reimburse airlines for losses incurred, however the Irish Minister for Transport Noel Dempsey said that Ireland would not do so due to the financial crisis.

Following the travel disruption, EU ministers agreed to accelerate the integration of national air traffic control systems into the Single European Sky and also to the immediate creation of a crisis coordination group to handle future transport disruptions.[7]

European economies[edit]

Several sectors that depend on air freighted imports and exports were badly affected by the flight disruptions. Shortages of imported flowers, fruits and electronic hardware were reported in the immediate days after the disruption. Exports of information technology hardware were also affected as firms were unable to ship their product out.[8]

The pharmaceuticals industry expected to be hit by spoilage concerns as the stock they manufacture in the UK is time sensitive, and expires quickly, while not being able to ship to overseas customers.[8] Imports of medications were affected, and local stocks, as they expire.[9]

Business people and officials expressed concerns about imports of fresh food and other essential goods into the United Kingdom.[10]

FedEx, DHL Express and other logistics companies were unable to transport goods by air.[11] Instead they had to transport packages to alternate destination (such as Istanbul or Madrid) and then ship by road to the final destination.[12][13]

Travel firm TUI Travel reported losses of GB£5–6 million per day during the airspace closure due to travellers being unable to return home.[14]

The carmaker BMW said it was suspending production at three of its plants in Germany, because of interruptions in the supply of parts. As waylaid travellers scrambled for other modes of transport, ferry and railway companies enjoyed an unexpected bonanza, while some car-hire firms were reportedly hiking charges.[15]

In the United Kingdom alone thirteen travel firms collapsed during the summer of 2010. The ash cloud disruption was cited as one of the contributing factors.[16]

African economies[edit]

Kenya is reported to have destroyed 400 tonnes of flowers it was unable to airship into the UK on 19 and 20 April 2010. As a result, their economy was estimated to be incurring losses of $3.8m each day of the disruption.[8][17] Thousands of Kenyan farm workers were temporarily laid off as harvesting of flowers and vegetables was stopped by 19 April due to the grounding of flights. The Kenya Flower Council said 3,000 tonnes of flowers were destroyed and the Fresh Produce Exporters Association of Kenya called the situation "disastrous".[18]

Zambia's flower and vegetable industry lost about $150,000 (£98,000) a day. Other African industries, such as Uganda's fish and flower export businesses, were also affected by the lack of air freight.[19]

Asian economies[edit]

Nissan declared a suspension in the production of three models in Japan on 21 April 2010 because supply of parts has been disrupted. It production of 2,000 vehicles in two plants. Honda also announced a partial halt to production. Factories in China's Guangdong province saw air shipments of clothes and jewellery delayed. In South Korea, Samsung and LG were unable to air-freight more than 20% of their daily electronics exports and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries said hotels and restaurants in Hong Kong were facing shortages of European produce.[20]

Australia economies[edit]

The New Zealand fisheries economy was helped by the disruption caused to air transport in Europe. Difficulties in bringing fresh salmon to international markets normally supplied by Norway and other northern European states have substantially boosted orders for New Zealand salmon. Similarly the Netherlands is unable to supply orchids for the start of the May wedding market in North America.[citation needed]

Impact on politicians and royalty[edit]

Travel disruption[edit]

A number of world leaders and politicians had to postpone planned trips or were diverted and delayed due to the closure of airports and airspace:

  • Prime Minister of Russia, Vladimir Putin postponed a trip to Murmansk on 15 April.[21]
  • Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg was in New York City for a conference and was unable to return to Oslo on schedule. Stoltenberg and his entourage flew to Madrid on Friday, and then onto Basel, Switzerland. Unable to get a train from Basel, they travelled the rest of the way by car.[22]
  • The President of Portugal, Cavaco Silva had to extend his state visit to the Czech Republic. The President made his way from Prague to Barcelona by car and then took a Falcon of the Portuguese Air Force home to Lisbon. President Silva arrived in Portugal on the evening of 18 April. Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany was forced to make a "surprise" visit to Portugal as she returned from the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington DC. She was expected to return to Germany by 10 am on Saturday, but has since then flown to Rome and is also expected to return home to Germany by car.[not in citation given][23]
  • The ban on flights in the UK disrupted the UK general election campaign trail on 15 April. Liberal Democrattreasury spokesperson Vince Cable's visit to Dunfermline and West Fife was terminated, as was LabourDefence SecretaryBob Ainsworth's journey to Scotland.[24] Former British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, got stranded in Israel during his scheduled election campaign tour.[25]
  • Emir of QatarHamad bin Khalifa Al Thani postponed an official two-day state visit to Germany, originally scheduled for 18–20 April.[26]
  • On 18 April, the Pakistan Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani was forced to cancel his visit to France and a summit in Brussels.
  • On 20 April, disruption to the Irish Government business occurred when nine Government and six opposition members of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland, were stranded at various destinations around the world. The Government passed one vote by a majority of two TDs that day, narrowly avoiding defeat.[27]

Funeral of Lech and Maria Kaczyńska[edit]

Main article: Death and state funeral of Lech and Maria Kaczyńska

The funeral of President of PolandLech Kaczyński and his wife, who died on 10 April 2010 in a plane crash in Smolensk, took place on 18 April. Due to the disruptions in travel, several national leaders cancelled their plans to attend, including Barack Obama, Stephen Harper, Angela Merkel, and Nicolas Sarkozy.[28][29] Presidential aide Jacek Sasin initially said a postponement until later that day or even the following day was a "very serious alternative",[28] but it was later announced that the funeral would take place as planned. On 17 April, delegations from India, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, New Zealand and Pakistan confirmed they would not attend.[30] Obama released a statement on Saturday afternoon saying that he would not be able to attend the funeral due to the traffic disruptions. He stated, in a phone call to acting President Bronisław Komorowski, "Michelle and I continue to have the Polish people in our thoughts and prayers..."[31]

Disruption to Royals[edit]

The travel plans of members of European royal families from countries such as the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Spain were cancelled — they had intended to travel to Copenhagen to celebrate the 70th birthday of Denmark's Queen Margrethe. The Dutch, Norwegian, and Swedishroyal families changed their plans from air to car or rail.[32][33]

The British Royal Family's travel plans were disrupted, including the cancellation of the Prince of Wales's attendance at the state funeral of the Polish president and first lady, and the Princess Royal's plan to visit Halifax, Nova Scotia for a Canadian Forces celebration, scheduled for 21 April.[34]

Military and civil impact[edit]

The Forecasting Economic Support Group of ICAO's Committee on Aviation Environment Protection postponed a planned summit in Bern as North American and Scandinavian members would be unable to attend. It caused a huge economic failure.

The repatriation of five German Bundeswehr soldiers wounded in action on 15 April 2010 in Afghanistan had to be postponed due to the closing of the German airspace.The MEDEVAC plane carrying them from Termez Airbase was rerouted to Istanbul where they are to be treated pending further developments.[35]

On 20 April 2010, it was reported that around 160 Irish troops, mainly from Dublin and Dundalk and from the Eastern Brigade and due to return home on a chartered plane from a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo, were stranded in the Balkans due to the travel disruption. They remained at Camp Clarke outside Pristina.[36][37]

Cultural impacts[edit]


The disruption had effects on the arts worldwide, with many events subject to cancellations.[38]


One of the early widely reported incidents was the trouble of actor/comedian John Cleese, who spent 30,000 Norwegian kroner (roughly £3,300) on a taxi journey from Oslo to Brussels after his flight from Norway was cancelled.[38][39][40] He had been appearing on Skavlan.[39] The 1,500 kilometre journey lasted around 15 hours, and Cleese passed through Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium during his journey.[41]

Eighty-three-year-old naturalist and television presenterSir David Attenborough and his crew, who had reached the North Pole to film the upcoming BBC nature series The Frozen Planet, were stranded in the Norwegian Arctic territory of Svalbard when the volcanic ash forced air space closure.[42] BBC executives expressed concern that Attenborough's crew would lack food and supplies if they were unable to leave the location, which they reached in a private plane.[42]

Robert Downey Jr., Gwyneth Paltrow, Demi Moore and American band The Drums were unable to make their scheduled appearance on Friday Night with Jonathan Ross on 23 April due to the flight disruption,[43] The Iron Man 2 World Premiere in the UK in relation to Downey Jr. and Paltrow's appearance was also moved to LA from London.[44]


Some British musical acts scheduled to perform at the 2010 Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in California, including Bad Lieutenant, Gary Numan, Delphic, Frightened Rabbit, Talvin Singh and The Cribs and the American group Hypnotic Brass Ensemble (who were touring in Europe) have encountered flight cancellations, jeopardizing their scheduled slots, all of them eventually cancelling their performances.[38][45][46][47][48]

Carnegie Hall cancelled a concert of the works of Louis Andriessen[38] because pianist Gerard Bouwhuis was stranded in Amsterdam and the Bang on a Can All-Stars were unable to leave Frankfurt.[38]

The Yehudi Menuhin International Competition for Young Violinists, held in Oslo, Norway was also affected, it was scheduled to begin on 16 April but was postponed until 18 April due to traffic disruption.

The appearance of pop singer Annie Lennox on the special "Idol Gives Back" episode of American Idol on 21 April was affected. Originally, Lennox was to have appeared at the Pasadena Civic Auditorium, near Los Angeles, to perform "Universal Child" as part of the charity fundraiser. However, since she could not travel to LA, Lennox instead recorded the song at a television studio in London, and the tape was played back on the live broadcast. The orchestra accompanied the song live as if she was actually there.


The 2013 French comedy film Eyjafjallajökull is a road movie starting when a divorced couple is forced to drive across Europe due to the cancellation of their flight.


The flight disruptions also led to a number of sporting fixtures being postponed or canceled as teams could not fly to their fixtures. The 2010 Japanese motorcycle Grand Prix, scheduled to be the second round of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing season was postponed until 2 October 2010, as the majority of teams were unable to travel to the circuit from their European bases.[49]

Other events which were disrupted due to participants being unable to attend include:

  • The French rugby league teams competing in the Challenge Cup[49]
  • In rugby union, the match was postponed between Switzerland and Lithuania in the third division of the European Nations Cup[50]
  • Multiple teams were delayed or were forced to withdraw from the World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship and World Senior Curling Championships due to air travel disruption.[51]
  • Several cyclists who reside in Spain were unable to make it to the Amstel Gold Race, including favorites Alejandro Valverde and Luis León Sánchez[52]
  • Professional wrestlerDouglas Williams, who was to defend his TNA X Division Championship at the Total Nonstop Action Wrestling pay-per-view event Lockdown, was unable to fly out of the United Kingdom. This resulted in Williams being stripped of his title.[53]
  • Mixed martial arts fighter Jim Wallhead was due to fight in the Bellator season 2 welterweight tournament, but had to withdraw because he could not travel to the United States from England.[54]
  • The Boston Marathon, on 19 April, took place without many athletes who had been in the affected countries[citation needed]
  • WWE Monday Night Raw, also on 19 April, was staged almost entirely with fill-in talent from the Friday Night Smackdown brand. The only Raw-brand "superstars" who made the show were Triple H, Vladimir Kozlov, Carlito as well as Commentators Michael Cole and Jerry Lawler, as the remaining stars were in Belfast following a European tour.[55]
  • The World Chess Championship was delayed by one day[56] because the defending World Chess ChampionViswanathan Anand was stranded in Frankfurt.
  • Fans found travel to the matches extremely difficult with some teams posting significantly lower attendances during the travel disruption.[57]

Some events were not disrupted but the participants had to make significant alternate travel plans to fulfill the fixture. The UEFA Champions League semi-final teams FC Barcelona and Olympique Lyonnais travelled by coach to their matches with Inter Milan and Bayern Munich respectively[49] and in the Europa League both English travelling teams, Liverpool[58] and Fulham[49] had to make long journeys by coach, train and Eurostar to reach their respective destinations in Madrid and Hamburg.[59]


The eruption impacted a record-breaking round-the-world flight led by Captain Riccardo Mortara. His private plane was due to land in Keflavik, Iceland, but with runways shut down was forced to abort at the last minute, costing his historic speed flight four to five hours.[60][61][62]

Effect on the environment[edit]

The volcano released approximately 1.5x10^8 kilograms of CO2 each day, but the massive reduction of air travel occurring over European skies caused by the ash cloud, saved an estimated 1.3 to 2.8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere by 19 April 2010.[63][64]

Residents of West London under the Heathrow Airport flight path have described the peace as 'bliss'. John Stewart of the Heathrow Association for the Control of Aircraft Noise said they had been inundated with emails and phone calls and said "The message is that this is what life should be like. The peace and quiet is absolutely wonderful." Christine Shilling, of the No Third Runway Action Group, who lives in nearby Harmondsworth, said: "I've lived here more than 40 years and I've never known such peace."[65]Jenny Tonge, president of HACAN Clearskies, life peer and former Liberal DemocratMP for Richmond Park in London said "Dare we hope that it will finally lay the Third Runway at Heathrow to rest and concentrate government minds on more environmentally friendly and sustainable forms of transport?"[66][67]


  1. ^Wearden, Graeme (16 April 2010). "Ash cloud costing airlines £130m a day". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 April 2010. 
  2. ^"Flight disruptions cost airlines $1.7bn, says IATA". BBC News. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  3. ^Jamieson, Alastair (25 April 2010). "Volcano ash cloud: winners and losers". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  4. ^"Ash cloud chaos: Airlines face huge task as ban ends". BBC News. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2011. 
  5. ^Bye, Bente Lilja (27 May 2011). "Volcanic eruptions: Science and Risk Management". Science 2.0. Retrieved 28 May 2011. 
  6. ^ ab"British Airways seeks compensation for ash chaos". BBC News. 19 April 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  7. ^Kanter, James; Clark, Nicola (2 May 2010). "European Union Agrees to Accelerate Joint Control of Skies". The New York Times. 
  8. ^ abcHanlon, Michael (19 April 2010) How we could ALL be victims of the volcano... and why we must hope for rain to get rid of the ash, Daily Mail.
  9. ^Ash disrupts deliveries to British shops, UPI.com, 17 April 2010/
  10. ^"Volcanic ash cloud causes economic concern" BBC News, 18 April 2010
  11. ^"Volcano's eruption beginning to hurt Europe's economy" The Star, 17 April 2010
  12. ^"UPS Flying Some Europe-Bound Asian Freight To Istanbul". Wall Street Journal. 18 April 2010. Archived from the original on 21 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  13. ^"Air crisis: Limited European flights given go-ahead | Post & Parcel". Postandparcel.info. 16 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  14. ^"Volcano disruption costing TUI £5m a day" BBC News, 19 April 2010
  15. ^"Travel chaos persists despite easing of air lockdown". BBC News. 21 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  16. ^Kiss Flights travel company ceases trading. Bbc.co.uk (18 August 2010). Retrieved on 6 May 2013.
  17. ^"Iceland volcano cloud: The economic impact" BBC News, 19 April 2010
  18. ^Volcanic flight ban hits Kenya farm workers BBC News, 19 April 2010
  19. ^"Zambia flowers and food exports hit by ash flight ban". BBC News. 20 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  20. ^"Ash disruption causes Nissan to suspend some production". BBC News. 20 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  21. ^Iceland volcano causes flight chaosAl Jazeera 15 April 2010
  22. ^Buan, Vibeke, (16 April 2010). "Statsministeren i bil fra Sveits". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010. 
  23. ^Segundo dia de caos aéreo no Continente Europeu PAIS; Retrieved 16 April 2010
  24. ^McGivern, Mark Icelandic volcano could bring chaos to British skies for a YEARDaily Record, 16 April 2010
  25. ^Volcanic ash cloud: Tony Blair stranded in Israel, Daily Telegraph, 18 April 2010.
  26. ^"http://thepeninsulaqatar.com/qatar/296-emirs-state-visit-to-germany-postponed.html". The Peninsula (newspaper). 20 April 2010. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2010. 
  27. ^McGee, Harry (21 April 2010). "Government narrowly avoids Dáil vote defeat". The Irish Times.
  28. ^ abBoyes, Roger Funeral of Polish president Lech Kaczyński faces delay over ash cloudThe Times, 16 April 2010
  29. ^"Ash stops Charles, Miliband attending Kaczynski funeral". AFP. 17 April 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2010. 
  30. ^Robin, Henry Poland marks minute of president's plane crashThe Times, 17 April 2010
  31. ^The President's Statement on Poland The White House; Retrieved 17 April 2010
  32. ^Volcanic eruption clouds Danish queen's birthday E-Taiwan News, 15 April 2010
  33. ^"Vulkaan verstoort koninklijk feest (Dutch) 15 April 2010" (in Dutch). Rtl.nl. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  34. ^"No Halifax visit for Princess Anne"CBC News, 20 April 2010
  35. ^Verletzte Soldaten müssen nach Istanbul fliegen FOCUS Online, 16 April 2010
  36. ^Irish troops stranded in BalkansIrish Examiner, 20 April 2010
  37. ^Irish soldiers stranded by ash cloudThe Belfast Telegraph, 20 April 2010
  38. ^ abcdeWhitney Houston, John Cleese, Coachella, Opera & More: How The Volcanic Ash Has Affected EntertainmentHuffington Post, 17 April 2010
  39. ^ abErskine, Carrole. Taxi For Cleese: Stranded Star's 30,000 Krone Fare Sky News, 16 April 2010
  40. ^Cleese splashes out on taxi journey RTÉ, 16 April 2010
  41. ^O'Brien, Tim Disruption forces Houston on to ferry and Cleese into cabThe Irish Times, 17 April 2010
  42. ^ ab"David Attenborough trapped in Arctic after Iceland volcano grounds all flights (but he did reach the North Pole at the age of 83)". The Daily Mail. London. 17 April 2010. Retrieved 18 April 2010. 
  43. ^Friday Night with Jonathan Ross. Radio Times.
  44. ^"Iron Man 2 premiere moved to US". BBC News. 19 April 2010. 
  45. ^British bands' Coachella Festival slots in doubt as volcanic ash shuts UK airportsNME, 15 April 2010
  46. ^Icelandic Volcano Casts a Shadow Over Indio, Calif.The New York Times: Artsbeat, 15 April 2010
  47. ^Volcano Forces Coachella Cancellations Pitchfork Media, 16 April 2010
  48. ^Lang, Derrik J. (18 April 2010) Hollywood vs. The Volcano: Ash disrupts celebs The Associated Press.
  49. ^ abcdVolcano's ash cloud still causing sporting chaos BBC Sport, 21 April 2010
  50. ^"Nine place gains for Sri Lanka and Malaysia". International Rugby Board. 19 April 2010. Archived from the original on 23 April 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2010. 
  51. ^World Seniors and World Mixed Doubles gets underway this weekend[permanent dead link] Royal Caledonian Curling Club
  52. ^"Valverde, Sanchez miss Amstel Gold due to Volcano Eyjafjallajökull". Cyclingnews.com. 17 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  53. ^Caldwell, James (18 April 2010). "Caldwell's TNA Lockdown Results 4/18: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of PPV – Styles vs. The Pope, Team Hogan vs. Team Flair, Angle vs. Anderson". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved 18 April 2010. 
  54. ^Stupp, Dann (19 April 2010). "Volcanic ash grounds Jim Wallhead, Ryan Thomas takes vacant Bellator 15 tourney slot". MMAjunkie.com. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  55. ^"WWE Raw Results – 4/19/2010". WrestlingNewsWorld.com. 19 April 2010. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  56. ^Anand v Topalov 1 Day Postponement Chess.com, 21 April 2010
  57. ^Liverpool 3 – 0 West Ham, Monday, 19 April 2010, att 37,697
  58. ^Liverpool arrive in Madrid after marathon journey BBC Sport, 21 April 2010
  59. ^Liew, Jonathan (21 April 2010). "Hamburg v Fulham: Roy Hodgson's side to play Europa League tie after 12-hour trip". The Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 24 April 2010. Retrieved 21 April 2010. 
  60. ^"Pilot Riccardo Mortara sets world record despite Icelandic eruption". Armor Journal. 21 March 2010. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2010. 
  61. ^Leach, Robin (23 March 2010). "Around-the-world flight makes pit stop in Las Vegas". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved 18 April 2010. 
  62. ^"Swiss pilots set new flight record". Reuters. 9 February 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2010. 
  63. ^Webster, Ben (19 April 2010).
Composite map of the volcanic ash cloud spanning 20 March 2010.
Particulate matter in the ejected dust scatters light from the setting sun, generating 'volcanic lavenders' like this one over the flight path of Leeds-Bradford Airport in England during the aviation shutdown.
Ash cloud on 15 April 2010

Volcano case studies

You should make sure you are familiar with 2 case studies:
Either: Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of Congo - Poor Country or Montserrat, Caribbean - Poor Country
Either: Mount St. Helens, USA - Rich Country or Iceland - Rich Country

Key terms:

Primary effects: the immediate effects of the eruption, caused directly by it
Secondary effects: the after-effects that occur as an indirect effect of the eruption on a longer timescale
 Immediate responses: how people react as the disaster happens and in the immediate aftermath 
Long-term responses: later reactions that occur in the weeks, months and years after the event


The video below contains more information on the primary and secondary effects of a volcano

On 17th January 2002 Nyiragongo volcano in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) was disturbed by the movement of plates along the East African Rift Valley. This led to lava spilling southwards in three streams.

The primary effects - The speed of the lava reached 60kph which is especially fast. The lava flowed across the runway at Goma airport and through the town splitting it in half. The lava destroyed many homes as well as roads and water pipes, set off explosions in fuel stores and powerplants and killed 45 people 

The secondary effects - Half a million people fled from Goma into neighbouring Rwanda to escape the lava. They spent the nights sleeping on the streets of Gisenyi. Here, there was no shelter, electricity or clean water as the area could not cope with the influx. Diseases such as cholera were a real risk. People were frightened of going back. However, looting was a problem in Goma and many residents returned within a week in hope of receiving aid.

Responses - In the aftermath of the eruption, water had to be supplied in tankers. Aid agencies, including Christian Aid and Oxfam, were involved in the distribution of food, medicine and blankets.

Montserrat - Poor country case study

Mount St Helens - Rich country case study

Mount St. Helens is one of five volcanoes in the Cascade Range in Washington State, USA. The volcano erupted at 8:32am on 18th May 1980. 

Effects - An earthquake caused the biggest landslide ever recorded and the sideways blast of pulverised rock, glacier ice and ash wiped out all living things up to 27km north of the volcano. Trees were uprooted and 57 people died.

Immediate responses - helicopters were mobilised to search and rescue those in the vicinity of the catastrophic blast. Rescuing survivors was a priority, followed by emergency treatment in nearby towns. Air conditioning systems were cleaned after by clogged with ash and blocked roads were cleared. Two million masks were ordered to protect peoples lungs.

Long-term responses - Buildings and bridges were rebuilt. Drains had to be cleared to prevent flooding. The forest which was damaged had to be replanted by the forest service. Roads were rebuilt to allow tourists to visit. Mount St. Helens is now a major tourist attraction with many visitor centres.

Iceland - Rich country case study

Iceland lies on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a constructive plate margin separating the Eurasian plate from the North American plate. As the plates move apart magma rises to the surface to form several active volcanoes located in a belt running roughly SW-NE through the centre of Iceland. Eyjafjallajokull (1,666m high) is located beneath an ice cap in southern Iceland 125km south east of the capital Reykjavik

The Eruption:
In March 2010, magma broke through the crust beneath Eyjafjallajokull glacier. This was the start of two months of dramatic and powerful eruptions that would have an impact on people across the globe. The eruptions in March were mostly lava eruptions. Whilst they were spectacular and fiery they represented very little threat to local communities,
However, on 14th April a new phase began which was much more explosive. Over a period  of several days in mid-April violent eruptions belched huge quantities of ash in the atmosphere.

Local impacts and responses:
The heavier particles of ash (such as black gritty sand) fell to the ground close to the volcano, forcing hundreds of people to be evacuated (immediate response) from their farms and villages. As day turned to night, rescuers wore face masks to prevent them choking on the dense cloud of ash. These ash falls, which coated agricultural land with a thick layer of ash, were the main primary effects of the eruption.
One of the most damaging secondary effects of the eruption was flooding. As the eruption occurred beneath a glacier, a huge amount of meltwater was produced. Vast torrents of water flowed out from under the ice. Sections of embankment that supported the main highway in Southern Iceland were deliberately breached by the authorities to allow floodwaters to pass through to the sea. This action successfully prevented expensive bridges being destroyed. After the eruption, bulldozers were quickly able to rebuild the embankments and within a few weeks the highway was reconstructed.

Local impacts:
800 people evacuated
Homes and roads were damaged and services (electricity & water) disrupted
Local flood defences had to be constructed
Crops were damaged by heavy falls of ash
Local water supplies were contaminated with fluoride from the ash

National impacts:
Drop in tourist numbers - affected Iceland's economy as well as local people's jobs and incomes
Road transport was disrupted as roads were washed away by floods
Agricultural production was affected as crops were smothered by a thick layer of ash
Reconstruction of roads and services was expensive

International impacts:
Over 8 days  - some 100,000 flights were cancelled
10 million air passengers affected
Losses estimated to be £80 million
Industrial production halted due to a lack of raw materials
Fresh food could not be imported
Sporting events such as the Japanese Motorcycle grand prix, Rugby leagues challenge cup and the Boston Marathon were affected

International impacts and responses:
The eruption of Eyjafjallajokull became an international event in mid-April 2010 as the cloud of fine ash spread south-eastwards toward the rest of Europe. Concerned about the possible harmful effects of ash on aeroplane jet engines, large sections of European airspace closed down. Passenger and freight traffic throughout much of Europe ground to a halt.
The knock-on effects were extensive and were felt across the world. Business people and tourists were stranded unable to travel in to or out of Western Europe. Industrial production was affected as raw materials could be flown in and products could not be exported by air. As far away as Kenya, farm workers lost their jobs or suffered pay cuts as fresh produce such as flowers and bean perished, unable to be flown to European supermarkets. The airline companies and airport operators lost huge amounts of money.
Some people felt that the closures were an over-reaction and that aeroplanes could fly safely through low concentrations of ash. However, a scientific review conducted after the eruption concluded that under the circumstances it had been right to close the airspace. Further research will be carried out as a long-term response to find better ways of monitoring ash concentrations and improving forecast methods.


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